Do you know what is CNG and how is it made? If not then there is no need to panic because in today’s article you will be told everything about CNG. As the prices of petrol and diesel are increasing, people’s attention is also increasing towards their alternative fuels. Natural gas is one of the alternative sources of conventional fuels. Vehicle companies are launching CNG variants of vehicles so that the burden of fuel expenditure can be lightened from the pockets of the people. Along with reducing the price, CNG also increases the mileage of the vehicles.
In the coming time, the number of vehicles running on CNG will increase. In such a situation it becomes important for you to know about CNG. In today’s article, you will be told about what is CNG gas, how CNG gas is made, what is the full form of CNG, etc. So let’s go ahead and know complete information about CNG .
What is the full form of CNG?
The full form of CNG is “Compressed Natural Gas” . Means “compressed natural gas” .
What is CNG? – What is CNG gas.
CNG is a compressed (with pressure) natural gas that is clear, odorless and non-corrosive. CNG causes a very small amount of pollution, hence it is called eco-friendly gas. It is cheaper than other fuels, such as petrol, diesel. CNG is mainly made of methane, it is compressed to less than 1% of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure.
CNG is generally stored and distributed in cylindrical or spherical shaped containers with 20-25 Megapascal pressure (MPa) (2900.75 to 3625.94 psi). As a fuel, CNG can be used in vehicles in which petrol, diesel and LPG are used.
During CNG combustion, a very small amount of harmful gases is released as compared to other fuels. To avoid rising fuel prices and environmental pollution , CNG is being used in autorickshaws, pickup trucks, school buses and trains. CNG comprises 80–90 percent methane and other traces of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, propane and ethane.
How is CNG made?
As we know, CNG is a compressed natural gas. Natural gas is a fossil energy source that exists beneath the surface of the Earth. Natural gas consists of many different compounds. The most abundant compound is methane (CH4) .
Natural gas exists beneath the Earth’s surface along with coal and oil, which were formed millions of years ago by being buried under the remains of plants and animals. There are vast reserves of natural gas under the surface of the earth and the ocean floor.
Wells are drilled to remove these gases. When the gas exits the well it is called wet natural gas, because along with methane it contains NGLs (natural gas liquids) such as ethane, propane, pentane and water vapour. In addition, the gas may also contain non-hydrocarbons, such as sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, most of which are removed before reaching consumers.
After release from the well, the natural gas is sent to processing plants, where water vapor and non-hydrocarbon compounds are removed. NGLs are separated from wet gas and sold separately. Some ethane is often released into processed natural gas .
The segregated NGLs are called natural gas plant liquids (NGPLs) and the processed natural gas is called dry consumer grade or pipeline quality gas . This gas is odorless, so some chemicals called odorants are put in it so that leakage in the natural gas pipeline can be detected.
Now dry natural gas is sent through pipeline to underground storage field or distributor companies and then to consumers. Coalbed methane is also extracted from coal reserves during or before coal mining and it is put into the natural gas pipeline without any special treatment.
Now this gas reaches the CNG stations through the natural gas pipeline , where it is passed through a dryer. The gas is then passed through two or five stages of compression to compress and achieve a pressure of 20-25 MPa (2900.75 to 3625.94 psi).
Once compressed, CNG is stored and distributed at a much lower cost than petrol or diesel.
What is the difference between CNG and LPG?
Some of the differences between CNG and LPG are as follows:
|CNG is a gas and remains in a gaseous state even when compressed (pressurized).||LPG is in gas form at normal temperature and pressure and on compression turns into liquid state.|
|CNG is used as a clean fuel instead of petrol and diesel.||LPG is used for cooking, as an industrial fuel and for refrigeration.|
Benefits of using CNG
CNG is considered a green fuel, as it is free of lead and sulfur and does not emit harmful gases (gases like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide). This helps in controlling the greenhouse effect .
Being non-corrosive, the life of the spark plug of the vehicle increases.
Being lighter than air, CNG is considered a safe fuel, because in case of a leak, it spreads quickly into the air and mixes easily with the air. Also it has a narrow flammability range, which makes it safer as compared to other fuels.
CNG has a high ignition temperature, so the chances of accidental and spontaneous ignition are reduced compared to other fuels.
The operating cost of vehicles running on CNG is much less as compared to vehicles running on other fuels.
The cost of CNG is low and its use in vehicles gives good mileage.
Use of CNG extends the life of lubricant oils as it does not contaminate or dilute the crankcase oil.
Disadvantages of CNG
If you use CNG in your vehicle then you will have to visit the service center again and again. This is because your engine runs dry on CNG, so the spark plug and engine oil gets worse. You will need to visit the service center frequently and keep an eye on the running of the car engine.
The resale value of CNG vehicles decreases significantly. In such a situation, if you go out to sell your car after use, then it may be difficult to get a better price for the customer. The advantage of this is when you want to buy a second hand vehicle, as you will get a CNG vehicle at a low price.
Another major disadvantage of CNG is that you may have to wait longer to get it as compared to petrol. This is because the number of CNG pumps in India is very less. But as new CNG pumps open, this problem will also go away.
If you have a company fitted CNG kit with your vehicle then you can drive without any hesitation.. But if you get a retro-fitted CNG kit installed from outside then you have to make sure that the kit is fitted properly. Apart from this, you also have to pay attention to engine oil, HP and LP filters.
If you are using CNG in your vehicle then you will have to undergo cylinder hydro testing after every 3 years. This is a mandatory test to find out whether your cylinder is fit enough for use in today’s hectic life. Now you have to decide whether you can take a day off for this test or not?
What are the uses of CNG?
- CNG is used as a fuel in vehicles.
- CNG is also used for electricity generation.
- CNG can be used for cooking in homes.
Who invented CNG?
Natural gas was first discovered in America in 1626, thanks to William Hart . However, CNG was invented in the year 1800. At that time, CNG was considered the best option to protect the environment.
FAQs related to CNG
1. What is Bio-CNG?
Bio-CNG is a renewable fuel , obtained by refining biogas. In contrast , CNG is a non-renewable fuel , that is, it cannot be recycled. Biogas is formed when microorganisms break down organic material such as crop, food residues and waste water. Therefore Bio-CNG (Bio-CNG) can be recovered by setting up a Biogas plant. Chemically Bio-CNG and CNG are equivalent.
2. Where does CNG come from in India?
India imports crude oil and then produces a variety of products from this crude oil by petrochemical refineries , such as petrol, diesel, kerosene, PVC, LPG and CNG. That is, CNG is made in India itself for use in India.
3. Which gas is mainly present in CNG?
CNG mainly consists of methane gas, which amounts to between 80 and 90%.
4. CNG is a mixture of?
Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, propane and ethane are found in CNG along with methane.
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